Kremlin of Moscow
Kremlin has been the centre of Russian statehood, the residence of Russian
tsars and hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church. Under Dmitry Donskoy in
1367-1368, the white-stone walls and towers of the Kremlin were erected and
Moscow began to be called “white-stone”. In 1485-1495, the Kremlin
was totally rebuilt. It was then that the first brick buildings appeared there
and it largely acquired its present appearance and dimensions.
The Kremlin has been the residence of the President of the Russian Federation
and his Administration since 1992.
Kremlin has been and remains a unique monument of Russian culture and a symbol of Russian statehood.
Nowadays on the territory of this
large cultural and historic preserve there are several world famous museums
that treasure historic relics, priceless works of arts and unique cultural
monuments. Four cathedral-museums occupy the most
important place in the Kremlin Museum-Preserve. These are the Assumption
Cathedral, the Annunciation Cathedral, the Archangel Cathedral and the Church
of Laying our Lady’s Holy Robe. All the temples have played a significant role
in the history of the Russian State and are open to the public.
Armory Chamber, a treasure house of Grand Kremlin Complex. The museum
collections are based on the precious items that had been preserved for
centuries in the tsar’s treasury. The Museum is named after one of the oldest Kremlin’s
it preserves ancient state regalia, ceremonial tsar’s vestments and coronation
dresses, vestments of the Russian Orthodox Church’s hierarchs, the largest
collection of gold and silverware done by Russian craftsmen, West European
artistic silver, ceremonial weapons and arms, carriages and many other unique
Diamond fund is a unique collection of best Russian and foreign jewelers’
works, rare samples of precious stones and nuggets of noble metals. Diamond
fund is the richest museum of Russia. It’s creation was encouraged by Peter I
the Great, since those times it was being enriched during Romanov’s dynasty’s
reign and during the time of Soviet Union.
Visiting diamond fund requires wearing sun glasses, for naked eye may suffer
from such glitter. Ekaterina II’s crown, the most expensive crown in the world
decorated by about 5000 diamonds and 75 pearls, is in the fund.
You can also see here a great collection of colored precious stones, where
emerald, as precious and rare as diamond, takes its honored place. Emeralds and
1st class jewels – ruby, alexandrite, sapphires are on a special show-case.
And, at last but not least, semiprecious stones. Nobody can stand oblivious in
front of them. The central show-case. Serene outwardly, but magically attracting
light of golden and platinum nuggets, fantastic masterpieces of nature.
The largest collection in the world, its age is about 150 years.
The State Tretyakov Gallery
The State Tretyakov Gallery is the national treasury of Russian fine art
and one of the greatest museums in the world. It is located in one of the
oldest directs of Moscow – Zamoskvorechye, not far from the Kremlin.
The Gallery’s collection consists entirely of Russian art and artists who have
made а contribution to the history of Russian art or been closely connected with
it. The collection contains more than 130 000 works of painting, sculpture and
graphics, created throughout the centuries by successive generations of Russian
Russian art works, ranging in date from the 11th to the early 20th century, are
on the show in Gallery’s historic building on Lavrushinskiy Pereulok.
New building of the Tretyakov Gallery at Krymskiy Val houses a unique museum
exhibition of national 20th century art.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
One of the richest world collections of fine arts from the time immemorial to nowadays is treasured in the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts that is favorably situated in the very center of Moscow, close to the Kremlin and Red Square. Nowadays it is the second, after the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg, largest museum of foreign art in Russia. Nowadays there are over 560,000 works of art exhibited in the halls of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. The museum treasures Egyptian mummies, antique amphorae and craters with images of Greek and Roman gods and heroes, old steles and sarcophagi, paintings by Rembrandt, Botichelli, Canaletto, Guardi, Tiepolo, impressive collection of Little Dutch Masters, impressionists, postimpressionists and modernists and many other works that form the gold collection of world art heritage. In the last few years the Museum got several new premises that render possible exhibiting of many private collections that for many years stayed inaccessible for the public.
Christ the Savior Cathedral
The Christ the Savior Cathedral is the largest of the Russian Orthodox Church, can accommodate up to 10,000 people. It was conceived as a memorial to Russian victory over Napoleon armies. The construction of the cathedral in the style of the Greek-Byzantine basilicas began in the late 19th century and continued for about 20 years.
The Great Patriotic War museum
The grand opening of State museum of the Great Patriotic War, dedicated to the victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, was held in Moscow on May 9, 1995. It offers not only the historic military exposition, but also the artistic one. There is a huge park nearby with an open-air exhibition of Soviet hardware, ranging from tanks to parts of submarines – not to be missed for weaponry and military history enthusiasts.
Main attractions: Six dioramas display the largest military actions of the Great Patriotic War.
Glory Hall. Marble plates with 11.171 engraved names of the war participants awarded The Hero of the Soviet Union star.
Memory and Mourning Hall where the so called “Books of Memory” with the names of 19,5 million soldiers killed during the war are stored.
The Museum exhibition displays rifles and arms of all the countries that participated in the WW II, military orders, awards and ordinary soldiers’ lockets. A huge collection of sculptures. drawings, sketches of professional and non professional artists and military posters of the war years are also exhibited here.
Metro in Moscow is the most famous in the world. Begun in the 1930’s, the Stalin-era underground was the USSR’s largest civilian construction project, with stations built as “people’s palaces.” Employing outstanding architects and artists, it still looks amazing after all those years. The early stations form an eclectic blend of Baroque, Classicism, Soviet Realism, quasi-religious iconography with idealizations of historical characters and their victories, sports, industry, agriculture, very much warfare past and present, the brighter future just ahead, and the heroically laboring working class with inclusion of the various Soviet ethnicities. Oh, and… The Revolution! The art includes bas-reliefs, friezes, marble and bronze statues, stained-glass windows and countless mosaics made with glass, marble and granite in good Byzantine fashion. Do check out the sky-themed mosaics by Alexander Deineka at the Art Deco styled Mayakovskaya station. At present, the Moscow Metro has 182 stations on 12 lines, covering an area of more than 302 kilometers. Close to 10 million people are transported on weekdays.
Museum of Cosmonautics
In 1981, in 20 years after the first flight in space (Juri Gagarin) in Moscow has been opened the Memorial museum of Cosmonautics. The author of idea of creation of the Moscow Space Museum was MainСhief-Designer of space systems of the USSR Sergey Korolev. As well as its destiny in the Space Museum bright pages of history of the Soviet and Russian astronautics are shown. The history is full of dramatic nature and bitter disappointments, triumphal victories and pride of human. You can see it all at the Space Museum!